A basic introduction to glutathione
Glutathione (glutathione GSH) is a glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine binding, thiol containing tripeptide, with antioxidant and integrated detoxification. Cysteine thiol on the glutathione active group (so glutathione often abbreviated as G-SH), easy and some drugs (such as acetaminophen), toxins (such as free radicals, iodoacetic acid, mustard gas, Lead, mercury, arsenic and other heavy metals) and so on, and has integrated detoxification. Therefore, glutathione (especially in the liver cells of glutathione) can participate in biotransformation, thereby the body of harmful toxic substances into harmless substances, excreted out of the body. Glutathione also helps maintain the function of the normal immune system.
Glutathione has a reduced form (G-SH) and oxidized form (G-S-S-G) two forms, under physiological conditions to reduced glutathione in the vast majority. Glutathione reductase catalyzes interconversion between two types. The coenzyme of this enzyme is the NADPH provided by the phosphorylation of glucose bypass.
The main function of glutathione
Glutathione is widely found in animals and plants, and plays an important role in the body. In the bread yeast, wheat germ and animal liver content is very high, up to 100~1000mg/100g, in the human blood contains 26~34mg/100g, chicken blood containing 58~73mg/100g, pig blood containing 10~15mg (100mg/100g) in sweet potatoes, green bean sprouts, onions and mushrooms. The contents of these substances were higher in tomato, pineapple and cucumber (12~33mg/100g).
Excessive metabolism of free radicals will damage the biofilm, invasion of life molecules, to speed up the aging body, and induce tumor or atherosclerosis. Glutathione plays an important role in the body's biochemical defense system, and has many physiological functions. Its main physiological role is to remove free radicals in the body, as the body of an important antioxidant to protect many proteins and enzymes in the molecules of thiol. GSH structure contains a lively thiol-SH, easy to be oxidative dehydrogenation, the specific structure of the body to become the main free radical scavenger. For example, when a small amount of H2O2 generated within the cell, GSH in the role of glutathione peroxidase, the H2O2 reduced to H2O, itself is oxidized to GSSG, GSSG present in the liver and red blood cells in the glutathione reduction Enzyme, the reduction of H into GSH, so that the elimination of free radicals in vivo reaction can be sustained.
Glutathione can not only eliminate free radicals, but also improve human immunity. Glutathione to maintain health, anti-aging, slow cells in the elderly on the effectiveness of the play than the young.
Glutathione also protects hemoglobin from oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, free radicals, etc., so that it continues to function normally in the transport of oxygen. Some hemoglobin in red blood cells under the action of hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants, including ferrous iron oxidation to ferric iron, hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which lost oxygen capacity. Reduced glutathione can be directly combined with hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants, generating water and oxidized glutathione, can also be methemoglobin reduced to hemoglobin. Human erythrocyte glutathione in a lot of content, which protect the red cell membrane protein thiol in the reduction state, to prevent hemolysis is of great significance.
Glutathione protective enzyme molecules-SH group, is conducive to the enzyme activity, and can restore the enzyme has been destroyed in the molecular activity of -SH function, the enzyme back to activity. Glutathione can also inhibit the liver damage caused by alcoholic fatty liver.
Glutathione for radiation, radiation therapy caused by leukopenia and other symptoms, have a strong protective effect. Glutathione can enter the body of toxic compounds, heavy metal ions or carcinogens, etc., and promote their excretion, play a role in detoxification.
Glutathione Related Applications
Glutathione has a broad spectrum of detoxification, not only for drugs, but also as a functional food base material, in the anti-aging, enhance immunity, anti-tumor and other functional foods widely used.
At present, has been artificially developed a glutathione drugs, widely used in clinical, in addition to the use of its thiol to chelate heavy metals, fluoride, mustard gas poisoning, but also used in hepatitis, hemolytic disease and keratitis, cataract And retinal diseases, as a therapeutic or adjuvant therapy. In recent years, Western scientists, especially Japanese scholars found that glutathione has the function of inhibiting HIV.
The latest research also shows that GSH can correct the imbalance of acetylcholine, cholinesterase, play an anti-allergic effect, but also to prevent skin aging and pigmentation, reduce melanin formation, improve skin antioxidant capacity and make the skin shine, GSH in the treatment of corneal disease and improve sexual function also has a good effect.
Combined with vitamin C:
In addition, vitamin C is also an important antioxidant in vivo. Because vitamin C can reversibly hydrogenation or dehydrogenation, so vitamin C in the body of many redox reactions have an important role. For example, the active group of many enzymes is thiol (-SH), vitamin C can maintain the reduction state of -SH while maintaining enzyme activity; vitamin C can oxidized glutathione into reduced glutathione (GSH), So that the body metabolism of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction; vitamin C can also protect the vitamin A, E and some B vitamins from oxidation. Therefore, the use of glutathione, combined with vitamin C, can improve its efficacy.
1, added to the surface products, can play a role in the reduction. Not only to make bread to reduce the time to the original one-half or one-third of a substantial improvement in working conditions, and play a strengthening role in food nutrition and other functions.
2, added to the yogurt and infant food, the equivalent of vitamin C, can play a role in stabilizing agent.
3, mix it into the fish cake, can prevent the color deepens.
4, added to meat and cheese and other foods, with enhanced flavor effect.
The Medical Application of Glutathione
The goods can promote sugar, fat and protein metabolism, accelerate free radical excretion, protection of liver synthesis, detoxification, inactivation of hormones and other functions. For fatty liver, poisoning and viral hepatitis and other adjuvant therapy.